During the high medieval period , the Islamic world was at its cultural peak , supplying information and ideas to Europe , via Al-Andalus , Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant. These included Latin translations of the Greek Classics and of Arabic texts in astronomy , mathematics , science , and medicine. Translation of Arabic philosophical texts into Latin "led to the transformation of almost all philosophical disciplines in the medieval Latin world", with a particularly strong influence of Muslim philosophers being felt in natural philosophy, psychology and metaphysics. The Islamic world also influenced other aspects of medieval European culture, partly by original innovations made during the Islamic Golden Age , including various fields such as the arts , agriculture , alchemy , music , pottery , etc. Many Arabic loanwords in Western European languages, including English , mostly via Old French, date from this period.