File Name: mahatma gandhi and national movement .zip
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Mahatma Gandhi is perhaps the most widely recognized figure of the Indian Nationalist Movement for his role in leading non-violent civil uprisings. He first employed the non-violent approach in South Africa where he was serving as an expatriate lawyer. He was hurt and angry when he witnessed the discrimination and exploitation of coloured people under Whites rule.
He organizes non-violent protests in the country which gained him fame and support from the people of South Africa. Unforgettable is his services which gave us freedom, the same are enumerated below. One of his major achievements is in the year were the Champaran and Kheda agitations which are also called a movement against British landlords. The farmers and peasantry were forced to grow and cultivate Indigo and were even to force to sell them at fixed prices.
Finally, these farmers pledged to Mahatma Gandhi which resulted in non-violent protest. Wherein Gandhiji won the battle. Kheda, in the year was hit by floods and farmers wanted relief from tax. Using non-cooperation as his main weapon Gandhiji used it in pledging the farmers for nonpayment of taxes. Gandhiji in the year approached Muslims, as he found the position of Congress was quite weak and unstable. Khilafat Movement is all about the worldwide protest against the status of Caliph by Muslims.
This movement supported Muslims to a great extent and the success of this movement made him the national leader and facilitated his strong position in the Congress party. Khilafat movement collapsed badly in and throughout their journey, Gandhiji fought against communalism, but the gap between Hindus and Muslims widened. The first of the Gandhi-led movements was the Non-Cooperation Movement lasting from September until February Gandhi, during this movement, believed that the British were only successful in maintaining control because the Indians were cooperative.
If the residents of a country stop co-operating with the British, then the minority Britishers would be forced to give up. The movement gained popularity, and soon, millions of people were boycotting British-run or cooperative establishments. This meant that people left their jobs, removed their children from schools, and avoided government offices. The name Mahatma Gandhi became popular. The abrupt ending of the Non-Cooperation Movement did nothing to stop the quest for independence.
On March 12, , protesters took part in the Dandi March, a campaign designed to resist taxes and protest the British monopoly on salt. Gandhi began the day, mile march with 79 followers and ended with thousands. When the protesters reached the coastal town of Dandi, they produced salt from saltwater without paying the British tax.
This act was accompanied by civil disobedience across the country. The Dandi group continued moving south along the coast, producing salt along the way.
British officials acted immediately and arrested nearly every member of the Indian National Congress party. England, with a new Prime Minister, offered some concessions to the Indian demands such as the right to make independent Provincial constitutions, to be granted after the war; they were not accepted.
Nationalist Movements in India
Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2 October, at Porbandar, Gujarat. Every year on 2 October, Gandhi Jayanti is observed. This year the day marks the st birth anniversary. He was also considered as the father of the country. No doubt, he had also improved the lives of India's poor people. His birthday is celebrated every year as Gandhi Jayanti.
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In ancient times, people from all over the world were keen to come to India. The Persians followed by the Iranians and Parsis immigrated to India. Then came the Moghuls and they too settled down permanently in India. Chengis Khan, the Mongolian, invaded and looted India many times. Alexander the Great too, came to conquer India but went back after a battle with Porus. He-en Tsang from China came in pursuit of knowledge and to visit the ancient Indian universities of Nalanda and Takshila.
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Mahatma Gandhi is perhaps the most widely recognized figure of the Indian Nationalist Movement for his role in leading non-violent civil uprisings. He first employed the non-violent approach in South Africa where he was serving as an expatriate lawyer. He was hurt and angry when he witnessed the discrimination and exploitation of coloured people under Whites rule. He organizes non-violent protests in the country which gained him fame and support from the people of South Africa.
Although actions such as the Salt March in raised pressure on the colonialist administration and won concessions, these remained limited in scope and fell short of the complete independence sought. The Swadeshi movement encouraged the Indian people to stop using British products and start using their own handmade products. The original Swadeshi movement emanated from the partition of Bengal in and continued up to
Noncooperation movement , unsuccessful attempt in —22, organized by Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi , to induce the British government of India to grant self-government, or swaraj, to India. The movement arose from the widespread outcry in India over the massacre at Amritsar in April , when the British-led troops killed several hundred Indians. Reginald Edward Harry Dyer , who had commanded the troops involved in the massacre. Gandhi strengthened the movement by supporting on nonviolent terms the contemporaneous Muslim campaign against the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The movement was to be nonviolent and to consist of Indians resigning their titles; boycotting government educational institutions, the courts, government service, foreign goods, and elections; and, eventually, refusing to pay taxes.
For the next three years, Gandhi seemed to hover uncertainly on the periphery of Indian politics, declining to join any political agitation, supporting the British war effort, and even recruiting soldiers for the British Indian Army. At the same time, he did not flinch from criticizing the British officials for any acts of high-handedness or from taking up the grievances of the long-suffering peasantry in Bihar and Gujarat. By February , however, the British had insisted on pushing through—in the teeth of fierce Indian opposition—the Rowlatt Acts , which empowered the authorities to imprison without trial those suspected of sedition.
Mahatma Gandhi was known for his non-violence protest and was a leading figure of freedom movements whether in India or South Africa. With his efforts finally India got freedom from the colonial rule. He always gave importance to human rights.