Nihilism A Philosophy Based In Nothingness And Eternity Pdf

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Since metaphysics is the study of what exists, one might expect metaphysicians to have little to say about the limit case in which nothing exists. But ever since Parmenides in the fifth century BCE, there has been rich commentary on whether an empty world is possible, whether there are vacuums, and about the nature of privations and negation. This survey starts with nothingness at a global scale and then explores local pockets of nothingness. Well, why not?

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In philosophy , " the Absurd " refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life , and the human inability to find any in a purposeless, meaningless or chaotic and irrational universe.

The absurdist philosopher Albert Camus stated that individuals should embrace the absurd condition of human existence. Absurdism shares some concepts, and a common theoretical template, with existentialism and nihilism. The aftermath of World War II provided the social environment that stimulated absurdist views and allowed for their popular development, especially in the devastated country of France.

In absurdist philosophy, the Absurd arises out of the fundamental disharmony between the individual's search for meaning and the meaninglessness of the universe. As beings looking for meaning in a meaningless world, humans have three ways of resolving the dilemma.

Absurdism originated from as well as alongside the 20th-century strains of existentialism and nihilism ; it shares some prominent starting points with both, though also entails conclusions that are uniquely distinct from these other schools of thought.

All three arose from the human experience of anguish and confusion stemming from the Absurd: the apparent meaninglessness in a world in which humans, nevertheless, are compelled to find or create meaning. Existentialists have generally advocated the individual's construction of their own meaning in life as well as the free will of the individual. Nihilists, on the contrary, contend that "it is futile to seek or to affirm meaning where none can be found.

Absurdists following Camus also devalue or outright reject free will, encouraging merely that the individual live defiantly and authentically in spite of the psychological tension of the Absurd. Camus himself passionately worked to counter nihilism , as he explained in his essay " The Rebel ," while he also categorically rejected the label of "existentialist" in his essay "Enigma" and in the compilation The Lyrical and Critical Essays of Albert Camus , though he was, and still is, often broadly characterized by others as an existentialist.

Camus's own understanding of the world e. Such a chart represents some of the overlap and tensions between existentialist and absurdist approaches to meaning. While absurdism can be seen as a kind of response to existentialism, it can be debated exactly how substantively the two positions differ from each other. The existentialist, after all, doesn't deny the reality of death. But the absurdist seems to reaffirm the way in which death ultimately nullifies our meaning-making activities, a conclusion the existentialists seem to resist through various notions of posterity or, in Sartre's case, participation in a grand humanist project.

In his journals, Kierkegaard writes about the absurd:. What is the Absurd? It is, as may quite easily be seen, that I, a rational being, must act in a case where my reason, my powers of reflection, tell me: you can just as well do the one thing as the other, that is to say where my reason and reflection say: you cannot act and yet here is where I have to act The Absurd, or to act by virtue of the absurd, is to act upon faith I must act, but reflection has closed the road so I take one of the possibilities and say: This is what I do, I cannot do otherwise because I am brought to a standstill by my powers of reflection.

Here is another example of the Absurd from his writings:. What, then, is the absurd? The absurd is that the eternal truth has come into existence in time, that God has come into existence, has been born, has grown up. How can this absurdity be held or believed? Kierkegaard says:. I gladly undertake, by way of brief repetition, to emphasize what other pseudonyms have emphasized. The absurd is not the absurd or absurdities without any distinction wherefore Johannes de Silentio: "How many of our age understand what the absurd is?

The absurd is a category, and the most developed thought is required to define the Christian absurd accurately and with conceptual correctness. The absurd is a category, the negative criterion, of the divine or of the relationship to the divine. When the believer has faith, the absurd is not the absurd — faith transforms it, but in every weak moment it is again more or less absurd to him.

The passion of faith is the only thing which masters the absurd — if not, then faith is not faith in the strictest sense, but a kind of knowledge. The absurd terminates negatively before the sphere of faith, which is a sphere by itself. To a third person the believer relates himself by virtue of the absurd; so must a third person judge, for a third person does not have the passion of faith.

Johannes de Silentio has never claimed to be a believer; just the opposite, he has explained that he is not a believer — in order to illuminate faith negatively. Kierkegaard provides an example in Fear and Trembling , which was published under the pseudonym Johannes de Silentio.

Just as Abraham is about to kill Isaac, an angel stops Abraham from doing so. Kierkegaard believes that through virtue of the absurd, Abraham, defying all reason and ethical duties "you cannot act" , got back his son and reaffirmed his faith "where I have to act".

Exploring the forms of despair, Kierkegaard examines the type of despair known as defiance. According to Kierkegaard in his autobiography The Point of View of My Work as an Author , most of his pseudonymous writings are not necessarily reflective of his own opinions.

Nevertheless, his work anticipated many absurdist themes and provided its theoretical background. Though the notion of the 'absurd' pervades all Albert Camus 's writing, The Myth of Sisyphus is his chief work on the subject. In it, Camus considers absurdity as a confrontation, an opposition, a conflict or a "divorce" between two ideals. He continues that there are specific human experiences evoking notions of absurdity.

Such a realization or encounter with the absurd leaves the individual with a choice: suicide , a leap of faith , or recognition. He concludes that recognition is the only defensible option. For Camus, suicide is a "confession" that life is not worth living; it is a choice that implicitly declares that life is "too much. The absurd encounter can also arouse a "leap of faith," a term derived from one of Kierkegaard's early pseudonyms, Johannes de Silentio although the term was not used by Kierkegaard himself , [17] where one believes that there is more than the rational life aesthetic or ethical.

To take a "leap of faith," one must act with the "virtue of the absurd" as Johannes de Silentio put it , where a suspension of the ethical may need to exist.

This faith has no expectations, but is a flexible power initiated by a recognition of the absurd. Although at some point, one recognizes or encounters the existence of the Absurd and, in response, actively ignores it. However, Camus states that because the leap of faith escapes rationality and defers to abstraction over personal experience, the leap of faith is not absurd. Camus considers the leap of faith as "philosophical suicide," rejecting both this and physical suicide.

Lastly, a person can choose to embrace the absurd condition. If the absurd experience is truly the realization that the universe is fundamentally devoid of absolutes, then we as individuals are truly free.

The freedom of humans is thus established in a human's natural ability and opportunity to create their own meaning and purpose; to decide or think for him- or herself. The individual becomes the most precious unit of existence, representing a set of unique ideals that can be characterized as an entire universe in its own right.

In acknowledging the absurdity of seeking any inherent meaning, but continuing this search regardless, one can be happy, gradually developing meaning from the search alone. Camus states in The Myth of Sisyphus : "Thus I draw from the absurd three consequences, which are my revolt, my freedom, and my passion.

By the mere activity of consciousness I transform into a rule of life what was an invitation to death, and I refuse suicide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Philosophical concept. This article is about the philosophy. For an extremely unreasonable, silly, or foolish thing, see Absurdity.

For absurdist humour, see surreal humour. For the literary genre, see Absurdist fiction. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Philosophy portal. Southern Cross University. Retrieved October 8, Kierkegaard and Existentialism.

Farnham, England: Ashgate. Rowman and Littlefield. The Sickness Unto Death. Princeton University Press. Part I, Ch. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Embry-Riddle University. Retrieved February 4, Crosby July 1, State University of New York Press.

Retrieved January 29, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. What is the Camusean alternative to suicide or hope? Kierkegaard wrote about all four viewpoints in his works at one time or another, but the majority of his work leaned towards what would later become absurdist and theistic existentialist views. Retrieved Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays.

Vintage Books. The Journals Writing Sampler. Albert Camus works. Francine Faure second wife. Phenomenology philosophy Continental philosophy Transcendentalism German idealism Western Marxism Existentialist anarchism Existential nihilism Atheistic existentialism.

Metaphysics Epistemology Logic Ethics Aesthetics. Schools of thought. Mazdakism Mithraism Zoroastrianism Zurvanism. Kyoto School Objectivism Postcritique Russian cosmism more

Why Is There Nothing Rather Than Something?

Nihilism struck me one day as an antidote to the complete insanity of adults around me, who I observed were tormented by death. Alone in the forest, I suddenly felt that everything was in the hands of benevolent force of life itself, and that the tension between the tangible and the present moment and the unpredictable, estimated, approximated, ambiguous, and mysterious future and distant consequences of our actions was the driving force behind humanity. To address this, I invented my homebrew nihilism from what I knew at a young age: the woods, and what I had seen in other humans and could test in myself. This nihilism consisted of a simple statement, which is that reality was both the tangible and intangible, comprised of a fusion between what we might call natural law and logic, using the ecosystems of the forest as a guide. It was based on life, in rejection of human life and the triad of universals — values, morality, and truths — which took the place of the one consistent and therefore real thing, which was external reality itself. It rejected humanism and the manipulative nature of human control, and favored understanding the logical chains of events and the reasons why things happened as they did.

[PDF DOWNLOAD] Nihilism: A Philosophy Based In Nothingness And Eternity unlimited_Acces By Brett Stevens [PDF] Download Nihilism: A Philosophy Based​.

Nihilism: A Philosophy Based in Nothingness and Eternity Read Online Reading Now

In philosophy , " the Absurd " refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life , and the human inability to find any in a purposeless, meaningless or chaotic and irrational universe. The absurdist philosopher Albert Camus stated that individuals should embrace the absurd condition of human existence. Absurdism shares some concepts, and a common theoretical template, with existentialism and nihilism.

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