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- Thinking, Fast and Slow
- THINKING, FAST AND SLOW by Daniel Kahneman, Review
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Thinking, Fast and Slow
It was the winner of the National Academies Communication Award for best creative work that helps the public understanding of topics in behavioral science , engineering and medicine. The book summarizes research that Kahneman conducted over decades, often in collaboration with Amos Tversky.
The main thesis is that of a dichotomy between two modes of thought : "System 1" is fast, instinctive and emotional ; "System 2" is slower, more deliberative , and more logical. From framing choices to people's tendency to replace a difficult question with one which is easy to answer, the book summarizes several decades of research to suggest that people have too much confidence in human judgement.
The book also shares many insights from Kahneman's work with the Israel Defense Forces and with the various departments and collaborators that have contributed to his education as a researcher. Kahneman describes a number of experiments which purport to examine the differences between these two thought systems and how they arrive at different results even given the same inputs.
Terms and concepts include coherence, attention, laziness, association, jumping to conclusions, WYSIATI What you see is all there is , and how one forms judgments. The System 1 vs. System 2 debate includes the reasoning or lack thereof for human decision making, with big implications for many areas including law and market research.
The second section offers explanations for why humans struggle to think statistically. It begins by documenting a variety of situations in which we either arrive at binary decisions or fail to associate precisely reasonable probabilities with outcomes.
Kahneman explains this phenomenon using the theory of heuristics. Kahneman and Tversky originally discussed this topic in their article titled Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Kahneman uses heuristics to assert that System 1 thinking involves associating new information with existing patterns, or thoughts, rather than creating new patterns for each new experience.
For example, a child who has only seen shapes with straight edges might perceive an octagon when first viewing a circle. As a legal metaphor, a judge limited to heuristic thinking would only be able to think of similar historical cases when presented with a new dispute, rather than considering the unique aspects of that case.
In addition to offering an explanation for the statistical problem, the theory also offers an explanation for human biases. The "anchoring effect" names our tendency to be influenced by irrelevant numbers. This is an important concept to have in mind when navigating a negotiation or considering a price. As an example, most people, when asked whether Gandhi was more than years old when he died, will provide a much greater estimate of his age at death than others who were asked whether Gandhi was more or less than 35 years old.
Experiments show that our behavior is influenced, much more than we know or want, by the environment of the moment. The availability heuristic is a mental shortcut that occurs when people make judgments about the probability of events on the basis of how easy it is to think of examples. The availability heuristic operates on the notion that, "if you can think of it, it must be important".
The availability of consequences associated with an action is related positively to perceptions of the magnitude of the consequences of that action. In other words, the easier it is to recall the consequences of something, the greater we perceive these consequences to be. Sometimes, this heuristic is beneficial, but the frequencies at which events come to mind are usually not accurate representations of the probabilities of such events in real life.
System 1 is prone to substituting a simpler question for a difficult one. In what Kahneman terms their "best-known and most controversial" experiment, "the Linda problem ," subjects were told about an imaginary Linda, young, single, outspoken, and intelligent, who, as a student, was very concerned with discrimination and social justice.
They asked whether it was more probable that Linda is a bank teller or that she is a bank teller and an active feminist. The overwhelming response was that "feminist bank teller" was more likely than "bank teller," violating the laws of probability. Every feminist bank teller is a bank teller. In this case System 1 substituted the easier question, "Is Linda a feminist? An alternative opinion is that the subjects added an unstated cultural implicature to the effect that the other answer implied an exclusive or , that Linda was not a feminist.
Kahneman writes of a "pervasive optimistic bias ", which "may well be the most significant of the cognitive biases. A natural experiment reveals the prevalence of one kind of unwarranted optimism. The planning fallacy is the tendency to overestimate benefits and underestimate costs, impelling people to begin risky projects. This theory states that when the mind makes decisions, it deals primarily with Known Knowns , phenomena it has observed already.
It rarely considers Known Unknowns , phenomena that it knows to be relevant but about which it does not have information. Finally it appears oblivious to the possibility of Unknown Unknowns , unknown phenomena of unknown relevance.
He explains that humans fail to take into account complexity and that their understanding of the world consists of a small and necessarily un-representative set of observations. Furthermore, the mind generally does not account for the role of chance and therefore falsely assumes that a future event will be similar to a past event.
Framing is the context in which choices are presented. Experiment: subjects were asked whether they would opt for surgery if the "survival" rate is 90 percent, while others were told that the mortality rate is 10 percent.
The first framing increased acceptance, even though the situation was no different. In this sense people do not depart from animals in general.
However, the way of thinking fast is not always sufficient, and then the slow thinking takes place. These two ways to thinking leads people to make decisions almost randomize depending on how the situation is placed. Rather than consider the odds that an incremental investment would produce a positive return, people tend to "throw good money after bad" and continue investing in projects with poor prospects that have already consumed significant resources.
In part this is to avoid feelings of regret. This part part III, sections of the book is dedicated to the undue confidence in what the mind believes it knows. It suggests that people often overestimate how much they understand about the world and underestimate the role of chance in particular.
This is related to the excessive certainty of hindsight, when an event seems to be understood after it has occurred or developed. Kahneman's opinions concerning overconfidence are influenced by Nassim Nicholas Taleb. In this section Kahneman returns to economics and expands his seminal work on Prospect Theory. He discusses the tendency for problems to be addressed in isolation and how, when other reference points are considered, the choice of that reference point called a frame has a disproportionate effect on the outcome.
This section also offers advice on how some of the shortcomings of System 1 thinking can be avoided. Kahneman developed prospect theory, the basis for his Nobel prize, to account for experimental errors he noticed in Daniel Bernoulli 's traditional utility theory.
One example is that people are loss-averse: they are more likely to act to avert a loss than to achieve a gain. Another example is that the value people place on a change in probability e. This occurs despite the fact that by traditional utility theory all three changes give the same increase in utility.
Consistent with loss-aversion, the order of the first and third of those is reversed when the event is presented as losing rather than winning something: there, the greatest value is placed on eliminating the probability of a loss to 0. After the book's publication, the Journal of Economic Literature published a discussion of its parts concerning prospect theory,  as well as an analysis of the four fundamental factors on which it is based.
The fifth part of the book describes recent evidence which introduces a distinction between two selves, the 'experiencing self' and 'remembering self'. Kahneman proposed an alternative measure that assessed pleasure or pain sampled from moment to moment, and then summed over time. Kahneman termed this "experienced" well-being and attached it to a separate "self. He found that these two measures of happiness diverged. The author's significant discovery was that the remembering self does not care about the duration of a pleasant or unpleasant experience.
Instead, it retrospectively rates an experience by the maximum or minimum of the experience, and by the way it ends. The remembering self dominated the patient's ultimate conclusion. Kahneman first began the study of well-being in the s. At the time most happiness research relied on polls about life satisfaction. Having previously studied unreliable memories, the author was doubtful that life satisfaction was a good indicator of happiness.
He designed a question that emphasized instead the well-being of the experiencing self. The author proposed that "Helen was happy in the month of March" if she spent most of her time engaged in activities that she would rather continue than stop, little time in situations that she wished to escape, and not too much time in a neutral state that wouldn't prefer continuing or stopping the activity either way.
Kahneman suggests that emphasizing a life event such as a marriage or a new car can provide a distorted illusion of its true value. As of the book had sold over one million copies. The book was also reviewed in an annual magazine by The Association of Psychological Science. Part of the book has been swept up in the replication crisis facing psychology and the social sciences. An analysis  of the studies cited in chapter 4, "The Associative Machine", found that their R-Index  is 14, indicating essentially no reliability.
Kahneman himself responded to the study in blog comments and acknowledged the chapter's shortcomings: "I placed too much faith in underpowered studies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Anchoring.
Main article: Availability heuristic. Main article: Attribute substitution. Main article: Framing effect psychology. Main article: Sunk cost fallacy. Main article: Overconfidence effect. Main article: Prospect theory. Main article: Affective forecasting. Retrieved August 17, Retrieved March 10, The New York Times. Thinking, Fast and Slow. Retrieved April 8, New York Review of Books. Retrieved August 10, Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on March 18, In Kahneman, Daniel ed.
THINKING, FAST AND SLOW by Daniel Kahneman, Review
It was the winner of the National Academies Communication Award for best creative work that helps the public understanding of topics in behavioral science , engineering and medicine. The book summarizes research that Kahneman conducted over decades, often in collaboration with Amos Tversky. The main thesis is that of a dichotomy between two modes of thought : "System 1" is fast, instinctive and emotional ; "System 2" is slower, more deliberative , and more logical. From framing choices to people's tendency to replace a difficult question with one which is easy to answer, the book summarizes several decades of research to suggest that people have too much confidence in human judgement. The book also shares many insights from Kahneman's work with the Israel Defense Forces and with the various departments and collaborators that have contributed to his education as a researcher. Kahneman describes a number of experiments which purport to examine the differences between these two thought systems and how they arrive at different results even given the same inputs.
Ready to learn the most important takeaways from Thinking Fast And Slow in less than two minutes? Keep reading! This book makes an important distinction between the two systems of thinking we use in our decision making: our impulsive, quick-thinking brain, and our more deliberate, analytical mind. Daniel Kahneman explains how to take control of these two separate systems so they can work in tandem to think in the ways we need to when we need to. Why This Book Matters: This book makes an important distinction between the two systems of thinking we use in our decision making: our impulsive, quick-thinking brain, and our more deliberate, analytical mind. The Two Types Of Thinking: System 1 Thinking: impulsive, automatic, and intuitive This system drives most of our thinking, as our brains use the minimum amount of energy possible for basic tasks.
You experienced slow thinking as you proceeded through a sequence of steps. Other mental activities become fast and automatic through 34 rapidly flashing letters: Daniel Kahneman, Jackson Beatty, and Irwin Pollack, "Perceptual.
PDF Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman Eb00k Gift Secure️
This is a great read for anyone who is interested in psychology and processes of thought. After studying psychology and receiving his bachelors, Kahneman was enlisted in the Israeli defence force, working primarily in the psychology department. Kahneman later moved to America to complete his Ph.
Kahneman, D. Reducing Noise in Decision Making. Harvard Business Review , 94 12 ,
Чатрукьян некоторое время смотрел на него, лишившись дара речи, а потом бегом направился прочь из шифровалки. Стратмор повернулся и с удивлением увидел Хейла. Сьюзан поняла, в чем дело: все это время Хейл вел себя тихо, подозрительно тихо, поскольку отлично знал, что нет такой диагностики, в которой использовалась бы цепная мутация, тем более такая, которая занимала ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже восемнадцать часов. Хейл не проронил ни слова. Казалось, вспыхнувшая на его глазах перепалка абсолютно его не касается.
Она кивнула, и из ее глаз потекли слезы. - Договорились. - Агент Смит! - позвал Фонтейн.
Он поднял глаза на видеомониторы, и у него закружилась голова.
Я-я…я убью. Клянусь, убью. - Ты не сделаешь ничего подобного! - оборвал его Стратмор. - Этим ты лишь усугубишь свое положе… - Он не договорил и произнес в трубку: - Безопасность. Говорит коммандер Тревор Стратмор.
Руку чуть не вырвало из плечевого сустава, когда двигатель набрал полную мощность, буквально вбросив его на ступеньки. Беккер грохнулся на пол возле двери. Мостовая стремительно убегала назад в нескольких дюймах внизу.
Он уже собрался идти, как что-то в зеркале бросилось ему в. Он повернулся: из полуоткрытой двери в кабинку торчала сумка Меган. - Меган? - позвал .
Она девушка Эдуардо, болван. Только тронь ее, и он тебя прикончит. ГЛАВА 56 Мидж Милкен в сердцах выскочила из своего кабинета и уединилась в комнате для заседаний, которая располагалась точно напротив. Кроме тридцати футов ого стола красного дерева с буквами АНБ в центре столешницы, выложенной из черных пластинок вишневого и орехового дерева, комнату украшали три акварели Мариона Пайка, ваза с листьями папоротника, мраморная барная стойка и, разумеется, бачок для охлаждения воды фирмы Спарклетс.
Извините, меня нет дома, но если вы оставите свое сообщение… Беккер выслушал все до конца. Где же. Наверняка Сьюзан уже начала волноваться.
Правой рукой, точно железной клешней, он обхватил ее за талию так сильно, что она вскрикнула от боли, а левой сдавил ей грудную клетку.
Неужели так. - Утечка информации! - кричал кто-то. - Стремительная.
Несмотря на сомнения относительно быстродействия машины, в одном инженеры проявили единодушие: если все процессоры станут действовать параллельно, ТРАНСТЕКСТ будет очень мощным. Вопрос был лишь в том, насколько мощным. Ответ получили через двенадцать минут. Все десять присутствовавших при этом человек в напряженном ожидании молчали, когда вдруг заработавший принтер выдал им открытый текст: шифр был взломан.