Rise And Growth Of Communalism In India Pdf

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Despite the violence seen during the Partition and subsequent separation of India on the basis of religion, Indian society accepted a secular fabric to the society. The communalists continued to remain a marginal force.

The Hindu nationalists who later came to populate the Bharatiya Janata Party BJP and its various ideological affiliates have consistently harbored a starkly different view; they envision India as a majoritarian nation-state, not a multicultural one. To understand these dynamics, it is necessary to define basic concepts and review relevant history. This is because political entrepreneurs who promote ethnoreligious identities—especially Hindu nationalist ideologues—have created much confusion around the notion of secularism, claiming that its proponents have endeavored to make the state hostile or indifferent to religion. That was certainly not the intention of the architects of modern India, whose enemy was not religion, but communalism. Nationalist forces aside, all is not well with Indian secularism.

India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra Chapter 31

Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. This volume analyses the essential features of communalism and the reasons for its growth in modern India. The author seeks to understand and interpret, and expose, communalism for what it is. He further seeks to determine its roots and social functions during the phase of its birth and growth in the colonial period and why it resulted in the partition of the country.

Communalism is a term used in the world to denote attempts to construct religious or ethnic identity, incite strife between people identified as different communities, and to stimulate communal violence between those groups. The term communalism was constructed by the British colonial authorities as it wrestled to manage Hindu-Muslim riots and other violence between religious, ethnic and disparate groups in its colonies, particularly in British Africa and British South Asia , in early 20th century. Communalism is not unique to South Asia. The term came into use in early 20th century during the British colonial rule. The British historians have attributed the cause of the partition to the communalism of Jinnah and the political ambitions of the Indian National Congress. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Religious and ethnic divisions in South Asia.

Muslim League & Growth of Communalism

Before we discuss the growth of communalism in modern India, it is perhaps useful to define the term and point to certain basic fallacies regarding it. Communalism is basically an ideology with which we have lived so long that it appears to be a simple, easily understood notion. But this is, perhaps, not so. Communalism or communal ideology consists of three basic elements or stages, one following the other. First, it is the belief that people who follow the same religion have common secular interests, that is, common political, economic, social and cultural interests.


The growing communalism led to the Muslims forming a new political party called the Muslim League in Initially it was only confined to the.


The Rise and Growth of Communalism

Modern political consciousness was late in developing among the Muslims. As nationalism spread among the Hindus and Parsees of the lower middle class, it failed to grow equally rapidly among the Muslims of the same class. After the suppression of the Revolt, the British officials had taken a particularly vindictive attitude towards the Muslims, hanging 27, Muslims in Delhi alone. To check the growth of a united national feeling in the country, the British decided to follow more actively the policy of 'Divide and Rule' and to divide the people along religious lines. They encourage communal and separatist tendencies in Indian politics.

Along with the rise of nationalism, communalism too made its appearance around the end of the nineteenth century and posed the biggest threat to the unity of the Indian people and the national movement. Before we discuss the emergence and growth of communalism, it is perhaps necessary to define the term. Communalism is basically an ideology. Communal riots are only one consequence of the spread of this ideology.

The Growth of Communalism in India

Before we discuss the growth of communalism in modern India, it is perhaps useful to define the term and point to certain basic fallacies regarding it. Communalism is basically an ideology with which we have lived so long that it appears to be a simple, easily understood notion. But this is, perhaps not so. Communalism or communal ideology consists of three basic elements or stages, one following the other. First, it is the belief that people who follow the same religion have common secular interests, that is, common political, economic, social and cultural interests. This is the first bedrock of communal ideology.

The stagnant economy of India during the British rule was an important factor for the growth of communalism in India. It was deeply rooted in and was an expression of the interests and aspirations of the middle classes in a social set up in which opportunities for them were inadequate. The communal question was, therefore a middle class question par excellence. The main appeal of communalism and its main social base also lay among the middle classes. It is, however, important to note that a large number of middle class individuals remained, on the whole, free of communalism even in the s and s. According to Bipan Chandra communal politics till was organised around government jobs, educational concessions and the like as also political positions - seats in legislative councils, municipal bodies, etc - which enabled control over these and other economic opportunities.


The Growth of Communalism in India. Article shared by: ADVERTISEMENTS: Along with the rise of nationalism, communalism too made its appearance around.


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Запускайте видеозапись. ГЛАВА 117 - Трансляция видеофильма начнется через десять секунд, - возвестил трескучий голос агента Смита.  - Мы опустим каждый второй кадр вместе со звуковым сопровождением и постараемся держаться как можно ближе к реальному времени. На подиуме все замолчали, не отрывая глаз от экрана. Джабба нажал на клавиатуре несколько клавиш, и картинка на экране изменилась. В левом верхнем углу появилось послание Танкадо: ТЕПЕРЬ ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА Правая часть экрана отображала внутренний вид мини-автобуса и сгрудившихся вокруг камеры Беккера и двух агентов.

Я тебе очень благодарен. - Не стоит благодарности.  - Она улыбнулась и села напротив шефа. Стратмор был крупным кряжистым мужчиной, чье невыразительное лицо скрывало присущие ему решительность, настойчивость и неизменное стремление к совершенству. Серые глаза светились уверенностью, с которой сочеталась профессиональная скрытность, но сегодня в них проглядывали беспокойство и нерешительность. - У вас испуганный вид, - сказала Сьюзан.

 Что я здесь делаю? - пробормотал. Ответ был очень простым: есть люди, которым не принято отвечать. - Мистер Беккер, - возвестил громкоговоритель.  - Мы прибываем через полчаса. Беккер мрачно кивнул невидимому голосу. Замечательно.

Writing the Nation in India: Communalism and Historiography

Чем ты занята. - Я ничего не говорила, - ответила Сьюзан.

 Ой, дорогие мои… - сказала вдруг Соши. Она открыла на экране второе окно и просматривала остальную часть документов Лаборатории вне закона. - В чем дело? - спросил Фонтейн.

 Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос. Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну. - Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование.  - Здравствуйте, шеф.

ГЛАВА 73 У Дэвида Беккера было такое ощущение, будто его лицо обдали скипидаром и подожгли. Он катался по полу и сквозь мутную пелену в глазах видел девушку, бегущую к вращающейся двери. Она бежала короткими испуганными прыжками, волоча по кафельному полу туристскую сумку.