File Name: development of science and technology in islamic history .zip
Before beginning to analyze the impact of the Muslim world on Western science and technology, it is helpful to understand the history and culture of the Islamic world. Therefore, we will start this section with a tutorial on the history of the Islamic World to , created by the University of Calgary.
- Science, Technology and Security in the Middle East
- List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world
- Islamic history from 1683 to the present: reform, dependency, and recovery
Yet it is also possible to argue that the period of Western domination was merely an interlude in the ongoing development of indigenous styles of modernization. The three major Muslim empires did experience a decline during the 18th century, as compared with their own earlier power and with the rising powers in Europe , but most Muslims were not yet aware that Europe was partly to blame.
I slamic civilisation once extended from India in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Buildings in Andalusia such as the Alhambra in Granada, the Mezquita in Cordoba, and the Giralda in Seville are reminders of the architectural imprint this civilisation left on western Europe. Less well remembered, however, is the impact of Islamic civilisation on Western science, technology, and medicine between the years and
Science, Technology and Security in the Middle East
Forgot Password? Already Subscribed? Create a Login now. Hillel Ofek. Contemporary Islam is not known for its engagement in the modern scientific project. President Obama, for instance, in his June 4, speech in Cairo , praised Muslims for their historical scientific and intellectual contributions to civilization:.
It was innovation in Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra; our magnetic compass and tools of navigation; our mastery of pens and printing; our understanding of how disease spreads and how it can be healed. They serve as an implicit exhortation: the great age of Arab science demonstrates that there is no categorical or congenital barrier to tolerance, cosmopolitanism, and advancement in the Islamic Middle East.
To anyone familiar with this Golden Age, roughly spanning the eighth through the thirteenth centuries a. In his book What Went Wrong? Today, however, the spirit of science in the Muslim world is as dry as the desert. Pakistani physicist Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy laid out the grim statistics in a Physics Today article : Muslim countries have nine scientists, engineers, and technicians per thousand people, compared with a world average of forty-one.
In these nations, there are approximately 1, universities, but only of those universities have scholars who have published journal articles. Of the fifty most-published of these universities, twenty-six are in Turkey, nine are in Iran, three each are in Malaysia and Egypt, Pakistan has two, and Uganda, the U.
There are roughly 1. In fact, although Spain is hardly an intellectual superpower, it translates more books in a single year than the entire Arab world has in the past thousand years.
Comparative metrics on the Arab world tell the same story. Between and , Korea granted 16, patents, while nine Arab countries, including Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the U. A study in found that in one year, the United States published 10, scientific papers that were frequently cited, while the entire Arab world published only four. This may sound like the punch line of a bad joke, but when Nature magazine published a sketch of science in the Arab world in , its reporter identified just three scientific areas in which Islamic countries excel: desalination, falconry, and camel reproduction.
We will turn to this question later, but it is important to keep in mind that the decline of scientific activity is the rule, not the exception, of civilizations. While it is commonplace to assume that the scientific revolution and the progress of technology were inevitable, in fact the West is the single sustained success story out of many civilizations with periods of scientific flourishing.
Like the Muslims, the ancient Chinese and Indian civilizations, both of which were at one time far more advanced than the West, did not produce the scientific revolution. Nevertheless, while the decline of Arabic civilization is not exceptional, the reasons for it offer insights into the history and nature of Islam and its relationship with modernity.
Indeed, most of the greatest thinkers of the era were not ethnically Arab. This is not surprising considering that, for several centuries throughout the Middle East, Muslims were a minority a trend that only began to change at the end of the tenth century. Pre-modern science, while not blind to utility, sought knowledge primarily in order to understand philosophical questions concerned with meaning, being, the good, and so on.
Modern science, by contrast, grew out of a revolution in thought that reoriented politics around individual comfort through the mastery of nature. Whatever modern science owes to Arabic science, the intellectual activity of the medieval Islamic world was not of the same kind as the European scientific revolution, which came after a radical break from ancient natural philosophy.
Still, there are two reasons why it makes sense to refer to scientific activity of the Golden Age as Arabic. The first is that most of the philosophical and scientific work at the time was eventually translated into Arabic, which became the language of most scholars in the region, regardless of ethnicity or religious background.
This is in part because very little is known about the personal backgrounds of these thinkers. But it is also because of another caution we must keep in mind about this subject, which ought to be footnoted to every broad assertion made about the Golden Age: surprisingly little is known for certain even about the social and historical context of this era. Abdelhamid I. That said, the field has advanced far enough to convincingly demonstrate that Arabic civilization contributed much more to the development of science than the passive transmission to the West of ancient thought and of inventions originating elsewhere such as the numeral system from India and papermaking from China.
For one thing, the scholarly revival in Abbasid Baghdad that resulted in the translation of almost all the scientific works of the classical Greeks into Arabic is nothing to scoff at. But beyond their translations of and commentaries upon the ancients, Arabic thinkers made original contributions, both through writing and methodical experimentation, in such fields as philosophy, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, geography, physics, optics, and mathematics.
Perhaps the most oft-repeated claim about the Golden Age is that Muslims invented algebra. This claim is largely true: initially inspired by Greek and Indian works, the Persian al-Khwarizmi died wrote a book from whose title we get the term algebra.
The book starts out with a mathematical introduction, and proceeds to explain how to solve then-commonplace issues involving trade, inheritance, marriage, and slave emancipations. Its methods involve no equations or algebraic symbols, instead using geometrical figures to solve problems that today would be solved using algebra.
Despite its grounding in practical affairs, this book is the primary source that contributed to the development of the algebraic system that we know today. The Golden Age also saw advances in medicine. One of the most famous thinkers in the history of Arabic science, and considered among the greatest of all medieval physicians, was Rhazes also known as al-Razi.
Born in present-day Tehran, Rhazes died was trained in Baghdad and became the director of two hospitals. He identified smallpox and measles, writing a treatise on them that became influential beyond the Middle East and into nineteenth-century Europe. Rhazes was the first to discover that fever is a defense mechanism.
And he was the author of an encyclopedia of medicine that spanned twenty-three volumes. What is most striking about his career, as Ehsan Masood points out in Science and Islam , is that Rhazes was the first to seriously challenge the seeming infallibility of the classical physician Galen. He found that it did. Rhazes provides a clear instance of a thinker explicitly questioning, and empirically testing, the widely-accepted theories of an ancient giant, while making original contributions to a field.
Breakthroughs in medicine continued with the physician and philosopher Avicenna also known as Ibn-Sina; died , whom some consider the most important physician since Hippocrates. He authored the Canon of Medicine , a multi-volume medical survey that became the authoritative reference book for doctors in the region, and — once translated into Latin — a staple in the West for six centuries. Like the later European Renaissance, the Arabic Golden Age also had many polymaths who excelled in and advanced numerous fields.
One of the earliest such polymaths was al-Farabi also known as Alpharabius, died ca. Another great polymath was al-Biruni died , who wrote treatises totaling 13, pages in virtually every scientific field. His major work, The Description of India , was an anthropological work on Hindus. Another of the most brilliant minds of the Golden Age was the physicist and geometrician Alhazen also known as Ibn al-Haytham; died Although his greatest legacy is in optics — he showed the flaws in the theory of extramission, which held that our eyes emit energy that makes it possible for us to see — he also did work in astronomy, mathematics, and engineering.
The 20, pages he wrote over his lifetime included works in philosophy, medicine, biology, physics, and astronomy. What prompted scientific scholarship to flourish where and when it did?
What were the conditions that incubated these important Arabic-speaking scientific thinkers? There is, of course, no single explanation for the development of Arabic science, no single ruler who inaugurated it, no single culture that fueled it.
As historian David C. Scientific activity was reaching a peak when Islam was the dominant civilization in the world. So one important factor in the rise of the scholarly culture of the Golden Age was its material backdrop, provided by the rise of a powerful and prosperous empire. Newly opened routes connecting India and the Eastern Mediterranean spurred an explosion of wealth through trade, as well as an agricultural revolution.
For the first time since the reign of Alexander the Great, the vast region was united politically and economically.
The result was, first, an Arab kingdom under the Umayyad caliphs ruling in Damascus from to and then an Islamic empire under the Abbasid caliphs ruling in Baghdad from to , which saw the most intellectually productive age in Arab history. The rise of the first centralized Islamic state under the Abbasids profoundly shaped life in the Islamic world, transforming it from a tribal culture with little literacy to a dynamic empire.
To be sure, the vast empire was theologically and ethnically diverse; but the removal of political barriers that previously divided the region meant that scholars from different religious and ethnic backgrounds could travel and interact with each other.
Linguistic barriers, too, were decreasingly an issue as Arabic became the common idiom of all scholars across the vast realm. The spread of empire brought urbanization, commerce, and wealth that helped spur intellectual collaboration.
Several large metropolises — including Baghdad, Basra, Wasit, and Kufa — were unified under the Abbasids; they shared a single spoken language and brisk trade via a network of caravan roads. Baghdad in particular, the Abbasid capital, was home to palaces, mosques, joint-stock companies, banks, schools, and hospitals; by the tenth century, it was the largest city in the world.
As the Abbasid empire grew, it also expanded eastward, bringing it into contact with the ancient Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Chinese, and Persian civilizations, the fruits of which it readily enjoyed. In this era, Muslims found little of interest in the West, and for good reason. One of the most important discoveries by Muslims was paper, which was probably invented in China around a. The effect of paper on the scholarly culture of Arabic society was enormous: it made the reproduction of books cheap and efficient, and it encouraged scholarship, correspondence, poetry, recordkeeping, and banking.
Medieval Muslims took religious scholarship very seriously, and some scientists in the region grew up studying it. Avicenna, for example, is said to have known the entire Koran by heart before he arrived at Baghdad. Might it be fair, then, to say that Islam itself encouraged scientific enterprise? This question provokes wildly divergent answers.
But the single most significant reason that Arabic science thrived was the absorption and assimilation of the Greek heritage — a development fueled by the translation movement in Abbasid Baghdad.
For this reason, even if it is said that the Golden Age of Arabic science encompasses a large region, as a historical event it especially demands an explanation of the success of Abbasid Baghdad. This allowed for a relatively cosmopolitan society in which all Muslims could participate in cultural and political life.
Their empire lasted until , when the Mongols sacked Baghdad and executed the last Abbasid caliph along with a large part of the Abbasid population. During the years that the Abbasid empire thrived, it deeply influenced politics and society from Tunisia to India.
The Greek-Arabic translation movement in Abbasid Baghdad, like other scholarly efforts elsewhere in the Islamic world, was centered less in educational institutions than in the households of great patrons seeking social prestige.
But Baghdad was distinctive: its philosophical and scientific activity enjoyed a high level of cultural support. There seem to have been three salient factors inspiring the translation movement. First, the Abbasids found scientific Greek texts immensely useful for a sort of technological progress — solving common problems to make daily life easier.
The Abbasids did not bother translating works in subjects such as poetry, history, or drama, which they regarded as useless or inferior. Indeed, science under Islam, although in part an extension of Greek science, was much less theoretical than that of the ancients.
Translated works in mathematics, for example, were eventually used for engineering and irrigation, as well as in calculation for intricate inheritance laws. And translating Greek works on medicine had obvious practical use. Astrology was another Greek subject adapted for use in Baghdad: the Abbasids turned to it for proof that the caliphate was the divinely ordained successor to the ancient Mesopotamian empires — although such claims were sometimes eyed warily, because the idea that celestial information can predict the future clashed with Islamic teaching that only God has such knowledge.
There were also practical religious reasons to study Greek science. Mosque timekeepers found it useful to study astronomy and trigonometry to determine the direction to Mecca qibla , the times for prayer, and the beginning of Ramadan.
List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world
Forgot Password? Already Subscribed? Create a Login now. Hillel Ofek. Contemporary Islam is not known for its engagement in the modern scientific project. President Obama, for instance, in his June 4, speech in Cairo , praised Muslims for their historical scientific and intellectual contributions to civilization:. It was innovation in Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra; our magnetic compass and tools of navigation; our mastery of pens and printing; our understanding of how disease spreads and how it can be healed.
have echoed throughout the history of Islam and incited Muslims to seek knowledge wherever it might be found. During most of its history,. Islamic civilization.
Islamic history from 1683 to the present: reform, dependency, and recovery
Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas, especially astronomy , mathematics , and medicine. Other subjects of scientific inquiry included alchemy and chemistry , botany and agronomy , geography and cartography , ophthalmology , pharmacology , physics , and zoology. Medieval Islamic science had practical purposes as well as the goal of understanding.
A visual art related to writing—the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument or brush in one stroke.
У немца. Его взял немец. Дэвид почувствовал, как пол уходит у него из-под ног. - Немец. Какой немец.
- И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку. Это был уже не тот раздавленный отчаянием человек, каким она видела его десять минут. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор снова стал самим собой - человеком железной логики и самообладания, делающим то, что полагалось делать. Последние слова предсмертной записки Хейла крутились у нее в голове, не повинуясь никаким приказам.