Difference Between Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data Pdf

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Distinguish Between Primary and Secondary Sources

The facts and figures which can be numerically measured are studied in statistics. Numerical measures of same characteristic is known as observation and collection of observations is termed as data.

Data are collected by individual research workers or by organization through sample surveys or experiments, keeping in view the objectives of the study.

The data collected may be:. The difference between primary and secondary data in Statistics is that Primary data is collected firsthand by a researcher organization, person, authority, agency or party etc through experiments, surveys, questionnaires, focus groups, conducting interviews and taking required measurements, while the secondary data is readily available collected by someone else and is available to the public through publications, journals and newspapers.

Primary data means the raw data data without fabrication or not tailored data which has just been collected from the source and has not gone any kind of statistical treatment like sorting and tabulation. The term primary data may sometimes be used to refer to first hand information.

The sources of primary data are primary units such as basic experimental units, individuals, households. Following methods are used to collect data from primary units usually and these methods depends on the nature of the primary unit. Published data and the data collected in the past is called secondary data.

It is important to go through the primary data and locate any inconsistent observations before it is given a statistical treatment. Data which has already been collected by someone, may be sorted, tabulated and has undergone a statistical treatment. It is fabricated or tailored data. Am writing a small book on the Philippine Statistical System. This post by Mr Ullah is very useful reference. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

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Primary and Secondary Data in Statistics

Fall library services. Primary sources are firsthand, contemporary accounts of events created by individuals during that period of time or several years later such as correspondence, diaries, memoirs and personal histories. These original records can be found in several media such as print, artwork, and audio and visual recording. Examples of primary sources include manuscripts, newspapers, speeches, cartoons, photographs, video, and artifacts. Primary sources can be described as those sources that are closest to the origin of the information.

Primary sources of data collection have their advantages such as addressing specific research problems and applications in data management and storage. On the other hand, secondary data gathering has also a range of benefits, best practices, and important meaning in the marketing and data world. For each type of business to be successful, it is absolutely crucial to have reliable information for the market and customer characteristics. This is where intensive research methods and data collection tools come to make it possible. Primary data is information collected directly from first-hand experience. This is the information that you gather for the purpose of a particular research project.


Primary sources are firsthand, original, or raw information, such as letters, works of art, field notes, interviews, or lab results. Secondary sources are works that analyze, interpret, or comment on a primary source. For example, say that you need to gather information about a federal law.


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Metrics details. The data from individual observational studies included in meta-analyses of drug effects are collected either from ad hoc methods i. The use of secondary sources may be prone to measurement bias and confounding due to over-the-counter and out-of-pocket drug consumption, or non-adherence to treatment. In fact, it has been noted that failing to consider the origin of the data as a potential cause of heterogeneity may change the conclusions of a meta-analysis. We aimed to assess to what extent the origin of data is explored as a source of heterogeneity in meta-analyses of observational studies.

The methodology allows the subject to provide a firsthand, first-person account. Data collection can be resultant of a number of methods, which include interviews, focus groups, surveys, telephone interviews, field notes,. Based on our empirical experience of the world, it can be described as a way of justifying what is to be right with quantifiable evidence.

Primary and secondary sources

Information For Students

Primary sources provide a first-hand account of an event or time period and are considered to be authoritative. They represent original thinking, reports on discoveries or events, or they can share new information. Often these sources are created at the time the events occurred but they can also include sources that are created later. They are usually the first formal appearance of original research.

Jump to navigation. When it comes to research and inquiry, there are two types of sources: primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources are first-hand accounts of a topic while secondary sources are any account of something that is not a primary source.

Whether conducting research in the social sciences, humanities especially history , arts, or natural sciences, the ability to distinguish between primary and secondary source material is essential. Basically, this distinction illustrates the degree to which the author of a piece is removed from the actual event being described, informing the reader as to whether the author is reporting impressions first hand or is first to record these immediately following an event , or conveying the experiences and opinions of others—that is, second hand. These are contemporary accounts of an event, written by someone who experienced or witnessed the event in question. These original documents i. They may also include published pieces such as newspaper or magazine articles as long as they are written soon after the fact and not as historical accounts , photographs, audio or video recordings, research reports in the natural or social sciences, or original literary or theatrical works.

Primary Data VS Secondary Data

4 thoughts on “Primary and Secondary Data in Statistics”

Она прилетела за. Ангел заговорил: - Дэвид, я люблю. Внезапно он все понял. Сьюзан на экране тянулась к нему, плача и смеясь, захлестнутая волной эмоций. Вот она вытерла слезы. - Дэвид… я подумала… Оперативный агент Смит усадил Беккера на сиденье перед монитором. - Он немного сонный, мадам.

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3 Response
  1. Harrison H.

    PDF | This paper examined primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data is an Distinguish between primary data and secondary data.

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