File Name: earthquake resistant construction of r c c building and construction practices .zip
- Cost difference of buildings in Kathmandu constructed with and without earthquake safer features
- General Concepts Earthquake Resistant Design
- Earthquake engineering
- Earthquake-Resistant Structures - Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation
Cost difference of buildings in Kathmandu constructed with and without earthquake safer features
Elevar la calidad del servicio que la revista presta a los autores. Asegurar la eficacia y la mejora continua del servicio. The development of new codes for earthquake-resistant structures has made possible to guarantee a better performance of buildings, when they are subjected to seismic actions. Therefore, it is convenient that current codes for design of building become conceptually transparent when defining the strength modification factors and assessing maximum lateral displacements, so that the design process can be clearly understood by structural engineers. The aim of this study is to analyze the transparency of earthquake-resistant design approach for buildings in Mexico by means of a critical review of the factors for strength modification and displacement amplification.
Experience in past earthquakes has demonstrated that many common buildings and typical methods of construction lack basic resistance to earthquake forces in most cases this resistance can be achieved by following simple inexpensive principles of good building construction practices. These principles fall into several broad categories:- i Planning and layout of the building involving considerations of the location of rooms and walls, openings such as doors and windows, the number of storeys etc. At this stage, site and foundation aspects should also be considered. Generally they must be suitably reinforced by steel or wood. For categorizing the buildings with the purpose of achieving seismic resistance at economical cost three parameters turns out to be significant:. A combination of these parameters will determine the extent of appropriate seismic strengthening of the building.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate increase in the cost of reinforced concrete buildings in Kathmandu valley constructed using earthquake safer features in comparison with that of buildings constructed using conventional approach without earthquake safety features. Five buildings constructed using earthquake safer features and five buildings constructed without using these features are selected. A cost comparison of both types of buildings is done, and the total cost is also compared for structural, nonstructural and service components in the buildings. The cost analysis of buildings constructed in Kathmandu valley shows that there is 10 per cent increase in cost for earthquake safer construction in comparison to construction using conventional approach. This increase in cost can be a deterrent factor for house owners to switch to safer construction practices which ultimately leads to lack of compliance from house owners.
General Concepts Earthquake Resistant Design
Such buildings are indigenous and widespread within Indonesia, and are particularly susceptible to damage and destruction from earthquake events. A range of technical and social elements are significant to reducing earthquake risk to this building type and need to be appreciated within the context of current regulatory, design, and construction practices in Indonesia. Quantitative data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to provide inferential ranking and correlation of responses. Qualitative data were processed using NVivo software to code prominent patterns in the views and opinions of the respondents. The application of the research findings is unquestionably significant and valuable to Indonesia as any measures which can reduce earthquake risk have: the potential to improve the quality and sustainability of buildings; the ability to enhance the protection of property; and the real capability to save lives.
The Mumbai Metropolitan region and New Delhi-Gurgaon region has seen a spurt in the vertical growth of buildings. With the recent earthquake in Nepal, the discussion on how safe buildings and houses are in India has again gained prominence. The question on most minds is, how safe is my residential building or office building during an earthquake?
Earthquake-Resistant Structures - Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation
Seismic loads should be considered in the cost estimation process as a consequence of changes in structural dimensions. Seismic loads received by buildings vary from one region to another, which are used as a basis for dimensioning structural components. This paper aims to investigate the potential cost changes of the reinforced concrete RC beam and column elements as an implication of variations in seismic load received by a building constructed in different seismic areas. This study was applied to a prototype of the two-story building. The structure analysis performed with dynamic analysis by varying seismic design categories based on eight seismic zones in the observed area. The utilization of a building prototype was applied to three indices of seismic importance factor to represent the building occupancy category. The results of the study explaining the increase in the total cost of the two RC elements are 0.
Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. An earthquake or seismic engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or collapse in a major earthquake. Earthquake engineering is the scientific field concerned with protecting society, the natural environment, and the man-made environment from earthquakes by limiting the seismic risk to socio-economically acceptable levels. However, the tremendous costs experienced in recent earthquakes have led to an expansion of its scope to encompass disciplines from the wider field of civil engineering , mechanical engineering , nuclear engineering , and from the social sciences , especially sociology , political science , economics , and finance. A properly engineered structure does not necessarily have to be extremely strong or expensive. It has to be properly designed to withstand the seismic effects while sustaining an acceptable level of damage.
One of the activity is formulation of Indian Standards on different subjects of Engineering through various Division Councils. These standards are evolved based on concensus principle through a net work of technical committee comprising representatives from Research and Development Organizations, Consumers, Industry, Testing Labs and Govt. Organizations etc. India is one of the most disaster prone countries, vulnerable to almost all natural and man made disasters. Disaster prevention involves engineering intervention in buildings and structures to make them strong enough to withstand the impact of natural hazard or to impose restrictions on land use so that the exposure of the society to the hazard situation is avoided or minimized.
Что. - Я вызываю агентов безопасности. - Нет, коммандер! - вскрикнула Сьюзан. - Нет. Хейл сжал ее горло.
Сьюзан испытала от этих слов странное облегчение. - У него есть охрана. - В общем-то. - Он прячется в укрытии.
Бармен с видимым облегчением приготовил ему напиток. Беккер оглядел затейливое убранство бара и подумал, что все, что с ним происходит, похоже на сон. В любой другой реальности было бы куда больше здравого смысла. Я, университетский профессор, - подумал он, - выполняю секретную миссию. Бармен с любезной улыбкой протянул Беккеру стакан: - A su gusto, senor.
Танкадо имел основания ему верить. Стратмор замялся, не зная, что ответить. - Отключите ТРАНСТЕКСТ, - взмолилась Сьюзан. - Мы нашли Северную Дакоту.
Стратмор нажал несколько кнопок и, прочитав полученное сообщение, тихо застонал. Из Испании опять пришли плохие новости - не от Дэвида Беккера, а от других, которых он послал в Севилью. В трех тысячах миль от Вашингтона мини-автобус мобильного наблюдения мчался по пустым улицам Севильи.
Сьюзан. Сьюзан… Она знала, что его уже нет в живых, но его голос по-прежнему преследовал. Она снова и снова слышала свое имя. Сьюзан… Сьюзан… И в этот момент она все поняла.
Что-то подсказывало Сьюзан, что они близки к разгадке. - Мы можем это сделать! - сказала она, стараясь взять ситуацию под контроль. - Из всех различий между ураном и плутонием наверняка есть такое, что выражается простым числом.