File Name: national traffic and motor vehicle safety act of 1966 .zip
- National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966
- Motor-Vehicle Safety: A 20th Century Public Health Achievement
- National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
- Statutory Authorities
Both acts were passed by Congress and signed by Pres. Lyndon Johnson in By , automobile accidents had become the leading cause of death of Americans under age
The reduction of the rate of death attributable to motor-vehicle crashes in the United States represents the successful public health response to a great technologic advance of the 20th century—the motorization of America. Six times as many people drive today as in , and the number of motor vehicles in the country has increased fold since then to approximately million. Despite this steep increase in motor-vehicle travel, the annual death rate has declined from 18 per million vehicle miles traveled VMT in to 1. Figure 1. Systematic motor-vehicle safety efforts began during the s.
National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966
Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. For assistance, please send e-mail to: mmwrq cdc. Type Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. The reduction of the rate of death attributable to motor-vehicle crashes in the United States represents the successful public health response to a great technologic advance of the 20th century--the motorization of America.
Six times as many people drive today as in , and the number of motor vehicles in the country has increased fold since then to approximately million 1. The number of miles traveled in motor vehicles is 10 times higher than in the mids. Despite this steep increase in motor-vehicle travel, the annual death rate has declined from 18 per million vehicle miles traveled VMT in to 1.
Systematic motor-vehicle safety efforts began during the s. The systematic approach to motor-vehicle-related injury prevention began with NHSB's first director, Dr. William Haddon 2. Haddon, a public health physician, recognized that standard public health methods and epidemiology could be applied to preventing motor-vehicle-related and other injuries. He defined interactions between host human , agent motor vehicle , and environmental highway factors before, during, and after crashes resulting in injuries.
Tackling problems identified with each factor during each phase of the crash, NHSB initiated a campaign to prevent motor-vehicle-related injuries. In , passage of the Highway Safety Act and the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act authorized the federal government to set and regulate standards for motor vehicles and highways, a mechanism necessary for effective prevention 2,3.
Many changes in both vehicle and highway design followed this mandate. Vehicles agent of injury were built with new safety features, including head rests, energy-absorbing steering wheels, shatter-resistant windshields, and safety belts 3,4. Roads environment were improved by better delineation of curves edge and center line stripes and reflectors , use of breakaway sign and utility poles, improved illumination, addition of barriers separating oncoming traffic lanes, and guardrails 4,5.
The results were rapid. By , motor-vehicle-related death rates were decreasing by both the public health measure deaths per , population and the traffic safety indicator deaths per VMT Figure 2 1.
Changes in driver and passenger host behavior also have reduced motor-vehicle crashes and injuries. Enactment and enforcement of traffic safety laws, reinforced by public education, have led to safer behavior choices. Examples include enforcement of laws against driving while intoxicated DWI and underage drinking, and enforcement of safety-belt, child-safety seat, and motorcycle helmet use laws 5,6.
Government and community recognition of the need for motor-vehicle safety prompted initiation of programs by federal and state governments, academic institutions, community-based organizations, and industry.
Department of Transportation have provided national leadership for traffic and highway safety efforts since the s 2. State and local governments have enacted and enforced laws that affect motor-vehicle and highway safety, driver licensing and testing, vehicle inspections, and traffic regulations 2.
Preventing motor-vehicle-related injuries has required collaboration among many professional disciplines e. Citizen and community-based advocacy groups have played important prevention roles in areas such as drinking and driving and child-occupant protection 6.
Alcohol-impaired drivers. Factors that may have contributed to this decline include increased public awareness of the dangers of drinking and driving; new and tougher state laws; stricter law enforcement; an increase in the minimum legal drinking age; prevention programs that offer alternatives such as safe rides e.
Young drivers and passengers. However, in the death rate was Teenaged drivers are more likely than older drivers to speed, run red lights, make illegal turns, ride with an intoxicated driver, and drive after drinking alcohol or using drugs Strategies that have contributed to improved motor-vehicle safety among young drivers include laws restricting purchase of alcohol among underaged youths 6 and some aspects of graduated licensing systems e.
Factors that may have reduced pedestrian fatalities include more and better sidewalks, pedestrian paths, playgrounds away from streets, one-way traffic flow, and restricted on-street parking 6. Safety belts. Safety belt use began to increase following enactment of the first state mandatory-use laws in 6.
All states except New Hampshire now have safety-belt use laws. Primary laws which allow police to stop vehicles simply because occupants are not wearing safety belts are more effective than secondary laws which require that a vehicle be stopped for some other traffic violation 6, The prevalence of safety belt use after enactment of primary laws increases 1.
Child-safety and booster seats. All states have passed child passenger protection laws, but these vary widely in age and size requirements and the penalties imposed for noncompliance. In addition, parents fail to recognize the need for booster seats for children who are too large for child seats but not large enough to be safely restrained in an adult lap-shoulder belt Furthermore, motor-vehicle-related injuries led all causes for deaths among persons aged years.
In , motor-vehicle crashes resulted in 41, deaths 16 per , population , 3. The challenge for the 21st century is to sustain and improve motor-vehicle safety. Future success will require augmentation of the public health approach to 1 expand surveillance to better monitor nonfatal injuries, detect new problems, and set priorities; 2 direct research to emerging and priority problems; 3 implement the most effective programs and policies; and 4 strengthen interagency, multidisciplinary partnerships.
Key public health activities will be to continue efforts shown to reduce alcohol-impaired driving and related fatalities and injuries. Figure 1 Return to top. Figure 2 Return to top. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors in the HTML version.
An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U. Contact GPO for current prices. Department of Health and Human Services. Achievements in Public Health, Motor-Vehicle Safety: A 20th Century Public Health Achievement The reduction of the rate of death attributable to motor-vehicle crashes in the United States represents the successful public health response to a great technologic advance of the 20th century--the motorization of America.
Occupant-Protection Systems Safety belts. References National Safety Council. Accident facts, edition. Itasca, Illinois: National Safety Council, Reducing the burden of injury: advancing prevention and treatment. Transportation Research Board. Safety research for a changing highway environment. The cost of injury in the United States: a report to Congress. Position papers from the Third National Injury Control Conference: setting the national agenda for injury control in the s.
Graham JD. Injuries from traffic crashes: meeting the challenge. Ann Rev Public Health ; Injury Prevention ; Prevention of motor vehicle-related injuries: a compendium of articles from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Traffic safety facts, Alcohol involvement in fatal motor-vehicle crashes--United States, MMWR ;, Hingson R, Howland J.
Promoting safety in adolescents. Promoting the health of adolescents: new directions for the 21st century. Effectiveness of graduated driver licensing in reducing motor vehicle crashes.
Am J Prev Med ;16 1 suppl Effectiveness of primary and secondary enforced seat belt laws. Research note. National occupant protection use survey, controlled intersection study. NHTSA traffic tech note no. Improper use of child safety seats--Kentucky, MMWR ; Child passengers at risk in America: a national study of car seat misuse. Transportation in an aging society: improving mobility and safety for older persons.
Motor-Vehicle Safety: A 20th Century Public Health Achievement
Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. For assistance, please send e-mail to: mmwrq cdc. Type Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. The reduction of the rate of death attributable to motor-vehicle crashes in the United States represents the successful public health response to a great technologic advance of the 20th century--the motorization of America. Six times as many people drive today as in , and the number of motor vehicles in the country has increased fold since then to approximately million 1. The number of miles traveled in motor vehicles is 10 times higher than in the mids. Despite this steep increase in motor-vehicle travel, the annual death rate has declined from 18 per million vehicle miles traveled VMT in to 1.
The currency "laws in effect" date does not reflect acts for which classification has not been finalized. Does not conform to section catchline. The purpose of this chapter is to reduce traffic accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from traffic accidents. Therefore it is necessary—. The words "Congress hereby declares that", "to persons", and "Congress determines that" are omitted as surplus.
The Federal-Aid Highway Act of authorized positive action on the problem of highway safety. The Highway Safety Act includes 18 safety standards that, if fulfilled, will increase the effectiveness of the total highway transportation system. Among the goals of these pieces of safety legislation are to standardize and simplify operation of the system, which in turn will increase its utility. Open Access libre. Toggle navigation Menu. Distribution, posting, or copying of this PDF is strictly prohibited without written permission of the Transportation Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
Account Options Sign in. Selected pages Title Page. Table of Contents. Contents Section d.
During its second session, the 89th Congress took up the issue of comprehensive traffic and motor vehicle safety for the first time. Previous congresses had addressed some traffic safety issues in limited ways. However, a National Safety Council report estimating that automobile accidents resulted in 49, deaths, 1. Auto industry giants, including General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and American Motors, initially resisted these developments, arguing that driver error and poor road conditions, not their cars, were to blame.
Account Options Connexion. Page de titre. Remarks Upon Signing. Volume I. House and Senate Bills and Reports.
Account Options Connexion. Presidents Statement. Senate Report No to Accompany S House Debate. Senate Debate. Executive Communications
В руке красная туристская сумка фирмы Л. Белл. Светлые волосы тщательно уложены. - Прошу меня извинить, - пробормотал Беккер, застегивая пряжку на ремне. - Мужская комната оказалась закрыта… но я уже ухожу. - Ну и проваливай, пидор. Беккер посмотрел на нее внимательнее.
Мидж подошла к принтеру и, забрав распечатку очередности задач, попыталась просмотреть ее в темноте. - Ничего не вижу, - пожаловалась. - Включи свет. - Прочитаешь за дверью. А теперь выходи. Но Мидж эта ситуация явно доставляла удовольствие.
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Хейл решил выйти подышать воздухом, за что она была ему безмерно благодарна. Однако одиночество не принесло ей успокоения. В голове у Сьюзан беспрестанно крутилась мысль о контактах Танкадо с Хейлом. Кто будет охранять охранников. - подумала. Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Эти слова буквально преследовали .
Она пробовала снова и снова, но массивная плита никак не реагировала. Сьюзан тихо вскрикнула: по-видимому, отключение электричества стерло электронный код. Она опять оказалась в ловушке. Внезапно сзади ее обхватили и крепко сжали чьи-то руки. Их прикосновение было знакомым, но вызывало отвращение.
Необходим прямо. Она встала, но ноги ее не слушались. Надо было ударить Хейла посильнее. Она посмотрела на беретту и внезапно почувствовала тошноту. - Вы действительно собираетесь пристрелить Грега Хейла.
Выключите. Трудно даже представить, что происходит там, внизу. - Я пробовал, - прошептал Стратмор еле слышно. Ей еще не приходилось слышать, чтобы он так .
Хейл выжидал. Стояла полная тишина, и он внимательно прислушался. Ничего. Вроде бы на нижней ступеньке никого .
Базу данных защищали трехуровневое реле мощности и многослойная система цифровой поддержки. Она была спрятана под землей на глубине 214 футов для защиты от взрывов и воздействия магнитных полей. Вся деятельность в комнате управления относилась к категории Совершенно секретно. УМБРА, что было высшим уровнем секретности в стране. Никогда еще государственные секреты США не были так хорошо защищены.
- Цифровая крепость сразу же станет всеобщим стандартом шифрования. - Сразу же? - усомнилась Сьюзан. - Каким образом. Даже если Цифровая крепость станет общедоступной, большинство пользователей из соображений удобства будут продолжать пользоваться старыми программами. Зачем им переходить на Цифровую крепость.
Сьюзан на какое-то время забыла про Хейла. Она молила Бога, чтобы Стратмору звонил Дэвид.