File Name: journal of music technology and education .zip
- Current Issue: Volume 1, Number 1 (2020)
- Music Education with Digital Technology
- Journal of Music, Technology and Education: Volume: 1 | Issue: 1
Articles 7—21 The discipline that never was: current developments in music Journal of technology in higher education in Britain. Aims and Scope Journal Editor The Journal of Music, Technology and Education is specifically David Collins dedicated to the educational aspects of music technology and the Faculty of Arts technological aspects of music. We regard such Andrew Bates education in its widest sense, with no bias towards any particular Leeds College of Music genre.
Current Issue: Volume 1, Number 1 (2020)
While the expansion of technologies into the music education classroom has been studied in great depth, there is a lack of published literature regarding the use of digital technologies by students learning in individual settings. Do musicians take their technology use into the practice room and teaching studio, or does the traditional nature of the master-apprentice teaching model promote different attitudes among musicians toward their use of technology in learning to perform?
Data were collected from an international cohort of amateur, student, and professional musicians ranging widely in age, specialism, and musical experience. Results showed a generally positive attitude toward current and future technology use among musicians and supported the Technology Acceptance Model TAM , wherein technology use in music learning was predicted by perceived ease of use via perceived usefulness. Musicians' self-rated skills with smartphones, laptops, and desktop computers were found to extend beyond traditional audio and video recording devices, and the majority of musicians reported using classic music technologies e.
Despite this comfort with and access to new technology, availability reported within one-to-one lessons was half of that within practice sessions, and while a large percentage of musicians actively recorded their playing, these recordings were not frequently reviewed.
Our results highlight opportunities for technology to take a greater role in improving music learning through enhanced student-teacher interaction and by facilitating self-regulated learning.
The expansion of technology within society is a defining feature of the twenty-first century, revolutionizing how people work, learn, communicate, and spend their leisure time.
This is particularly true in the domain of music, where technology has become a presence, if not a requirement, in musical creation, production, expression, dissemination, promotion, and consumption Hugill, Music education is no exception, seeing significant study and growth and building upon general trends of technology use in the modern classroom Purves, ; Sweeney et al.
However, the attention given to understanding how and where technology is being used in music classroom settings has not been applied to the same extent in one-to-one teaching environments. The master-apprentice model of instrumental teaching can give the impression of an environment resistant to technological innovation Creech and Gaunt, ; Gaunt, The present study sought to address this gap by examining the use of and attitudes toward technology in the one-to-one learning and teaching of music performance.
The role of technology in the music classroom has benefited from two decades of close attention. Early work examined the emerging use of and access to technological resources in the music classroom Bray, ; Naughton, ; Rogers, ; Salaman, , implications for teacher training Hunt and Kirk, and potential applications for students with profound learning disabilities Ellis, By , inspections of music classrooms found a high degree of technology use, emphasizing that good practice stemmed from a knowledge of how the technology functioned, ability to model use of the technology, and minimized time loss from setup Mills and Murray, An independent review by the Department for Education on music education recommended that further work was needed to develop a national plan to embrace technological innovation and ensure that teachers are kept up-to-date with new developments Henley, While updated statistics on technology use in the music classroom have not been provided, more recent studies have found that technology use is on the rise and in a growing set of contexts Purves, ; Webster, Himonides and Purves surveyed the field, finding ten distinct roles technology took in the classroom, ranging from improving performance skills to facilitating communication to increasing teachers' abilities to assess the success of their students and their own teaching strategies.
While technology may remain underused in the classroom, with the barriers including a lack of availability, technical competence, and institutional support Kenny and McDaniel, ; Fautley, ; Gall, , its influence is growing. The explosion of online music resources has also shaped the sphere of music learning, both in the classroom and beyond. Millions of instructional music videos can be found via online portals such as YouTube, used not only by individuals in informal learning practices but being actively incorporated into educational frameworks Waldron, ; Smart and Green, This accessibility may belie their utility, however.
The students focussed primarily on instructional videos and charts, generally avoiding tools allowing for commutation and expert feedback such as forums or assessment tools. While students have ever-greater access to information, there is a risk of them being overwhelmed by choice and distraction and lacking the framework that teacher-led training and tailored support can provide.
Less has been published regarding the role of technology in one-to-one teaching settings and instrumental learning.
Existing evidence tends to be anecdotal or out-of-date relative to the quickly changing world of technology, such as one question in a survey of instrumental teachers by Barry and Mcarthur who found that the majority of instrumental music teachers did not use or encourage their students to use software-based music learning tools, although the technologies available would have been limited at the time.
The use of distance learning via videoconferenced lessons is growing, with research finding that skills such as sight-reading can be taught effectively over the medium Pike and Shoemaker, and that students and teachers are able to operate the equipment and make the most of the technical and physical limitations Kruse et al. The use of audio and video recordings, both in creating and viewing them, is also common, although the degree to which each of these activities is done remains unclear.
Experimental studies have demonstrated their potential as tools to improve self-assessment Johnston, ; Robinson, ; Daniel, ; Hewitt, ; Silveira and Gavin, Volioti and Williamon examined the use of audio recordings among instrumental learners, finding that students reported greater use of them than professionals, particularly for elements including goal setting and developing an interpretive style.
This supported earlier research that found only a small proportion of professional musicians listened to the recordings of others as part of their practice Hallam, Free comments showed that many students questioned technology's utility for contributing clarity and understanding to a topic as complex as musical expressivity. Considering the lack of published literature on musicians' use of and attitudes toward music technology in instrumental learning, and the explosion of new technologies now available to them, this study examined 1 musicians' skills with and attitudes toward technologies in their day-to-day lives, 2 how they engage with technology in the learning of musical instruments, 3 how attitudes as music learners differ from music teachers, and 4 musicians' attitudes toward potential new technologies and what factors predict adoption of new tools.
To investigate this, an exploratory survey study was designed and disseminated to an international cohort of musicians varying in age, experience, and instrument specialism. They had a mean experience of The survey opened with an information sheet outlining the topic and purpose of the study and instructing respondents that, by beginning the survey, they were providing informed consent.
Ethical approval for the study, including consenting procedures, was granted by the Conservatoires UK Research Ethics Committee following the guidelines of the British Psychological Society. The complete survey is available as Supplementary Material.
The first section focused on standard demographic descriptors including age, sex, primary instrument, nationality, and musical experience. The second section elicited information on technology use in day-to-day life, including self-perceived skill in using a range of standard technologies smartphones, laptops, desktop computers, tablets, smartwatches, televisions, audio and video recording equipment, audio playback equipment, and motion capture technologies , as well as the degree to which they seek out, enjoy using, and enjoy learning to use new technologies on 7-point scales from 1 not at all to 7 very much.
Respondents were also asked the degree to which they find day-to-day technologies easy to use and useful in an adaptation of Davis's scales for Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use of Technology, which together predict actual use of technology. The TAM has been replicated, adapted, and applied in numerous domains, including that of technology use in educational contexts Adams et al.
Figure 1. Figure adapted from Davis , p. In the model, perceived ease of use and usefulness of technologies predict attitudes toward and intention to use technology, which in turn predicts actual system use. They were then asked about drivers toward and barriers from incorporating technology into their music learning based on 7-point scales adapted from Gilbert , how likely they are to use new technologies should they become available, and another adaption of the Davis scale of usefulness and ease of use in the context of music learning.
The next questions investigated the degree to which musicians use technology to develop seven skill categories technical, musical, ensemble, practice, presentation, career, and life adapted from existing work to profile musicians' skills Williamon et al. Closing this section, musicians were asked the degree to which they engaged in technology-driven musical activates including documenting how practice is spent, having videoconferenced lessons, and recording and viewing recordings of their own and others' playing.
The final section examined attitudes toward future technologies, including the perceived potential utility of new technology to help with the same skill categories and subskills listed above, and responses to three hypothetical technologies proposed by the authors involving the use of audio, video, and motion capture technologies to be used alone in the practice room or in conjunction with a teacher.
A final section was presented for active music teachers only, briefly comparing their attitudes toward and use of technology in their roles as teachers to their roles as music learners and the degree to which they engaged in various technology-driven teaching activities including advertising, scheduling lessons, and tracking student progress.
The survey also contained a section shown to violinists as part of a sister project, the results of which are not reported here and details of which are not included in the Supplementary Material. The survey was distributed online via SurveyMonkey using social media channels and email lists, with assistance from a number of professional music organizations and educational institutions. The survey was designed to place general technology use early in the form, thus allowing for examination of the first area of focus musicians' general skill with music technology in their day-to-day lives with a data set prior to dropouts.
Of the respondents, complete data sets were recorded for For all analyses, missing data were excluded casewise and N values and degrees of freedom are reported accordingly throughout.
To examine differences within participants' use of and attitudes toward technology, repeated-measures ANOVAs were employed with relevant items included as independent variables and the responses to those items via commensurable 7-point scales as the dependant variables.
In cases where a rank-ordering of responses within survey item e. For example, if a five-item scale were ordered A-E, items A and B may form a tied group in which A was not significantly higher than B. However, B may be significantly higher than C, after which no significant differences remain, leaving group A-B significantly higher than group C-E.
An adapted form of the Technology Acceptance Model Davis, ; see Figure 1 was constructed and tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling PLS-SEM; adapted model structure described below and in Figure 7 to examine predictors of perceived future technology use.
The model was estimated using the software package SmartPLS v. Musicians were asked the degree to which they were skilled at using a variety of technologies on 7-point scales.
The highest skill confidence was found for laptops, smartphones, and desktop computers with no significant differences between them.
This grouping was significantly higher than the television and tablet grouping, which was significantly higher than audio recording devices, itself significantly higher than the pairing of video recording devices and audio playback equipment.
Correlations between each of the skill categories and age were examined using Kendall's Tau. To examine sex differences, a series of between-groups t -tests was conducted. Figure 2. Mean self-reported skills for using technological devices.
Musicians reported the highest skills in using laptop and desktop computers and smartphones, and the lowest for smart watches, and motion capture technologies. Skills with audio and video recording devices, as well as audio playback, were close to the midpoint. Age and sex had a relatively small effect on these ratings. Finally, musicians were asked the degree to which they found technology easy to use and useful in their day-to-day lives, using an adaption of Davis's scales.
No effects of age or sex were found. Musicians were asked whether they had access to a series of technologies in the spaces where they normally practice and receive lessons see Table 2. Across all technologies, approximately half of the musicians had regular access to technologies in the lesson space vs.
For four specific music technologies metronomes, tuners, audio recorders, and video recorders musicians were asked whether they primarily use these functionalities on a separate device, on their phone, or not at all see Table 3. For all four devices, the majority of technology use was on a smartphone as opposed to a stand-alone device. The next two questions examined drivers of and barriers preventing adoption of technology use in learning musical instruments, adapting scales by Gilbert For each set, a repeated measures ANOVA was conducted with item as the independent variable and response as the dependent variable with the questions rank-ordered and followed by a repeated contrast.
A significant main effect was found among drivers to technology [ F 6. For barriers to technology use, a significant main effect was again found [ F 5. As employed for general technology use, Davis's scales were adapted for use of technology in learning musical instruments.
To examine differences between attitudes toward general and music-learning-specific technology use, a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted with construct usefulness vs. Thus, attitudes toward technology were relatively stable across general and music-learning-specific applications, with the perceived usefulness of technology falling slightly when learning musical instruments.
Musicians were then asked where they use technology in music learning on a 7-point scale from always to never across seven skill development categories: technical, musical, ensemble, practice, presentation, career, and life. A repeated measures ANOVA with item as the independent variable and response as the dependent variable showed a significant effect of skill [ F 4. Career skills e. This was significantly higher than the grouping of practice, ensemble, and life e.
Presentation skills i. Figure 3. Self-reported use of technology to develop performance skills. Musicians reported the highest skills in career development, followed by developing musical and technical skills, then by practice, ensemble, and life skills, with presentation the lowest. The categories of musical, technical, and practice skills comprised a series of sub-skills.
A repeated measures ANOVA was employed with item as the independent variable and response as the dependent variable with sub-skills included among the overall rankings followed a deviation contrast in which every skill subset was compared with the grand mean of all skills combined.
As a deviation contrast does not compare the first- or last- entered variable, the overall practice skill score was placed in first position as it was the category closest to the mean score of the seven skill categories i. A significant main effect was found [ F Figure 4. Self-reported use of technology to develop performance skills, including subskills.
Music Education with Digital Technology
Unlike most educators, music educators must face copyright compliance frequently throughout their career. Although the thought of copyright can be intimidating and a complex subject, NAfME has a multitude of resources that can help you better understand U. NAfME, in collaboration with the NFHS , has created a new resource to help teachers better understand the copyright implications of using music in a distance learning environment which provides analysis on the TEACH Act and addresses frequently asked questions in this space. Licenses can be obtained for CDs, cassettes, LPs, or permanent digital downloads. Under U.
New content alerts RSS. International Journal of Music Education. Citation search. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. By continuing to browse With regret, the iJADE Conference has been postponed and we are now aiming to re-schedule for Spring
Few aspects of daily existence are untouched by technology. The learning and teaching of music is no exception, and arguably has been impacted as much or more than other areas of life. Digital technologies have come to affect music learning and teaching in profound ways, influencing everything from how we create, listen, share, consume, interact, and conceptualize musical practices and the musical experience. For a discipline as entrenched in tradition as music education, this has brought forth myriad views on what does and should constitute music learning and teaching. In order to tease out and elucidate some of the salient problems, interests, and issues, this volume sought to critically situate technology in relation to music education from a variety of perspectives: historical, philosophical, socio-cultural, pedagogical, musical, economic, policy, and so on, organized around four broad themes: 1 Emergence and Evolution, 2 Locations and Contexts: Social and Cultural Issues, 3 Experiencing, Expressing, Learning and Teaching, and 4 Competence, Credentialing, and Professional Development. The overall thrust was to provide contrasting perspectives and conversational voices rather than reinforce traditional narratives and prevailing discourses.
The Journal of Music, Technology and Education explores the issues concerning the use of technology in music education at all levels and across genres such.
Journal of Music, Technology and Education: Volume: 1 | Issue: 1
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Modern technology is increasingly present in modern music education from the elementary school to the university level.
Leave a comment. The chapters map out the primary forms of musical engagement - performing, listening, improvising, and composing - as activities which play a key role in classroom teaching. Price Jr.
It draws upon a recent position paper by Himonides and Purves , which argues that technology should not be viewed as a solution for the music educator to apply in the classroom. Keywords: music education , music technology , music educators. Evangelos Himonides PhD held the University of London's first ever lectureship in music technology education. Dr Himonides has developed the free online technologies for Sounds of Intent soundsofintent.
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