Practical Variable Speed Drives And Power Electronics Pdf

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Practical Variable Speed Drives and Power Electronics

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This has resulted in many new applications for AC variable speed drives VSDs to control the speed and torque of driven machinery. Variable speed drives VSDs are also used to meet particular starting and stopping requirements. The variable speed drives book promotes a sound understanding of how VSDs work and how to correctly select, install, commission and maintain them.

There is also detailed coverage of many typical applications in process control and materials handling such as those for pumping, ventilation, conveyers and hoists. This book will benefit anyone associated with the use of VSDs in the industrial or automation environment.

This book will also benefit those working in system design as well as site commissioning, maintenance and troubleshooting. Although a basic understanding of electrical engineering principles is essential, even those with a superficial knowledge of VSDs will substantially benefit from this book.

Chapter 1: Introduction. A review of the fundamentals in variable speed drives including motion concepts, torque speed curves, types of variable speed drives, mechanical variable speed drive methods and electrical variable speed drive methods. Chapter 2: 3-phase AC induction motors. These versatile and robust devices are the prime movers for the vast majority of machines.

This chapter covers the basic construction, electrical and mechanical performance, motor acceleration, AC induction generator performance, efficiency of electric motors, rating of AC induction motors, duty cycles, cooling and ventilation, degree of protection of motor enclosures, methods of starting and motor selection.

This chapter deals with the active components e. Chapter 4: Electromagnetic compatibility EMC. Interference in circuits refers to the presence of unwanted voltages or currents in electrical equipment, which can damage the equipment or degrade its performance.

The impact of variable speed drives can be severe and this chapter examines what causes interference and how to minimize its impact. Chapter 5: Protection of AC converters and motors. The protection of AC variable speed drives includes the protection of the AC converter and the electric motor.

The main methods of protection are examined. Chapter 6: Control systems for AC variable speed drives. The overall control system can be divided into four main areas of the inverter control system, speed feedback and control system, current feedback and control system and the external interface. Chapter 7: Selection of AC converters. This chapter covers many of the principles for the correct selection for AC variable speed drives, which use pwm-type variable voltage variable frequency VVVF converters to control the speed of standard AC squirrel cage induction motors.

Chapter 8: Installation and commissioning. Chapter 9: Special topics and new developments. Typical topics of soft-switching and the matrix converter are examined here. Some applications, such as paper making machines, cannot run without them while others, such as centrifugal pumps, can benefit from energy savings.

The benefits of energy savings are not always fully appreciated by many users. These savings are particularly apparent with centrifugal pumps and fans, where load torque increases as the square of the speed and power consumption as the cube of the speed.

Substantial cost savings can be achieved in some applications. An everyday example, which illustrates the benefits of variable speed control, is the motorcar. It has become such an integral part of our lives that we seldom think about the technology that it represents or that it is simply a variable speed platform. It is used here to illustrate how variable speed drives are used to improve the speed, torque and energy performance of a machine.

It is intuitively obvious that the speed of a motorcar must continuously be controlled by the driver the operator to match the traffic conditions on the road the process. In a city, it is necessary to obey speed limits, avoid collisions and to start, accelerate, decelerate and stop when required.

On the open road, the main objective is to get to a destination safely in the shortest time without exceeding the speed limit. A motorcar could not be safely operated in city traffic or on the open road without these two controls. The driver must continuously adjust the fuel input to the engine the drive to maintain a constant speed in spite of the changes in the load, such as an uphill, downhill or strong wind conditions. On other occasions he may have to use the brake to adjust the load and slow the vehicle down to standstill.

Another important issue for most drivers is the cost of fuel or the cost of energy consumption. The speed is controlled via the accelerator that controls the fuel input to the engine.

By adjusting the accelerator position, the energy consumption is kept to a minimum and is matched to the speed and load conditions. Imagine the high fuel consumption of a vehicle using a fixed accelerator setting and controlling the speed by means of the brake position. For example, the forward direction for a motorcar is intuitively obvious from the design of the vehicle.

Conveyor belts and pumps also usually have a clearly identifiable forward direction. The Reverse direction is designated as being negative —ve. For example, the reverse direction for a motor car is occasionally used for special situations such as parking or un-parking the vehicle. Motion takes place in the direction in which the resultant force is applied. So force is a combination of both magnitude and direction. In SI units, force is measured in Newtons.

It is the result of a linear force being applied to the object. For motion in the reverse direction, velocity is designated Negative —ve. The rotational force associated with rotating equipment is known as torque.

In SI units, torque is measured in Newton-meters Nm. Using the motorcar as an example, Figure 1. The petrol engine develops rotational torque and transfers this via the transmission and axles to the driving wheels, which convert torque T into a tangential force F.

No horizontal motion would take place unless a resultant force is exerted horizontally along the surface of the road to propel the vehicle in the forward direction. The higher the magnitude of this force, the faster the car accelerates.

In variable speed drive applications, this acceleration time is often called the ramp-up time. In variable speed drive applications, this deceleration time is often called the ramp-down time. The braking period ramp-down time back to standstill is 2 sec. There are some additional terms and formulae that are commonly used in association with variable speed drives and rotational motion. In SI units, it is measured in watts.

In rotating machines, power can be calculated as the product of torque and speed. Consequently, when a rotating machine such as a motor car is at standstill, the output power is zero. This does not mean that input power is zero! Even at standstill with the engine running, there are a number of power losses that manifest themselves as heat energy. In SI units it is usually measured as kiloWatt- hours kWh.

In the example of the motorcar, the fuel consumed over a period of time represents the energy consumed. In SI units, moment of inertia is measured in kgm2. The time t sec required to change from one speed to another will depend on the moment of inertia J kgm2 of the rotating system, comprising both the drive and the mechanical load. Power is positive in the sense that energy is transferred from the prime mover engine to the mechanical load wheels.

This is the case of the machine driving in the forward direction. Power is negative in the sense that energy is transferred from the wheels back to the prime mover engine. In the case of the motor car, this returned energy is wasted as heat. In some types of electrical drives this energy can be transferred back into the power supply system, called regenerative braking. This is the case of the machine driving in the reverse direction. As above, in some types of electrical drives this power can be transferred back into the power supply system, called regenerative braking.

This is the case of the machine braking in the reverse direction. These 4 quadrants are summarized in Figure 1. Figure 1. Curves, which plot torque against speed on a graph, are often used to illustrate the performance of the VSD. The speed variable is usually plotted along one axis and the torque variable along the other axis. Sometimes, power is also plotted along the same axis as the torque.

Since energy consumption is directly proportional to power, energy depends on the product of torque and speed. In practice, this is done by adjusting the fuel supplied to the engine, using the accelerator for control, without using the brake. This is analogous to using an electric variable speed drive to control the flow of water through a centrifugal pump. In practice, this could be done by keeping a fixed accelerator setting and using the brakes for speed control.

Practical Variable Speed Drives and Power Electronics

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Typical practical applications of VSDs in process control and materials handling, such as those for pumping, ventilation, conveyers, compressors and hoists are covered in detail. Professional engineers and technicians: electrical power engineering, control engineering including process and materials handling applications ; advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students; control and instrumentation engineers; industrial system integrators; electrical, mechanical and chemical engineers and technicians wishing to understand the essentials of variable speed drives and power electronics. Malcom Barnes is a professional engineer with over thirty-five years' experience specialising in automation, switchgear and process control equipment. Malcom has presented numerous courses in automation and variable speed drives throughout the world. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.

Practical Variable Speed Drives and Power Electronics

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The rapid adoption of automation techniques in industry has increased the requirement for better process control. This has resulted in many new applications for AC variable speed drives VSDs to control the speed and torque of driven machinery. Variable speed drives VSDs are also used to meet particular starting and stopping requirements. The variable speed drives book promotes a sound understanding of how VSDs work and how to correctly select, install, commission and maintain them. There is also detailed coverage of many typical applications in process control and materials handling such as those for pumping, ventilation, conveyers and hoists.

This principle is equally applicable in basic terms to the conventional and permanent magnet synchronous motor, and with some small adaptation to the switched reluctance motor.

Practical Variable Speed Drives and Power Electronics - MG

Few topics generate as much controversy and argument as that of grounding and the associated topics of surge protection, shielding Malcom Barnes is a professional engineer with over thirty-five years' experience specialising in automation, switchgear and process control equipment. Malcom has presented numerous courses in automation and variable speed drives throughout the world. Du kanske gillar. Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. Laddas ned direkt.

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