File Name: craik and tulving 1975 .zip
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test and the repeated test trials studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests , and then to the shallow processing level asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter and the deep processing level whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later.
- Craik & Tulving (1975) Levels of Processing
- tulving 1972 pdf
- The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention
Craik & Tulving (1975) Levels of Processing
Permalink Print. By "depth of processing", we mean, the way in which a person thinks about a piece of information, for example, a shallow level of processing of a word would be to skim over a sentence and to understand the sentence without dwelling on the individual word. In this way, we have processed the meaning of the word, but only in order to understand the sentence. A deeper level of processing, on the other hand, would be to look at the word by itself, outside of a sentence, and to think of what the word means; maybe even what other words rhyme with it. This way, we are also more likely to remember it. In , the researchers conducted an experiment in which participants were shown a list of 60 words. They were then asked to recall certain words by being shown one of three questions, each testing a different level of processing, similar to:.
tulving 1972 pdf
They found a higher accuracy of recall when the orienting questions were based on the physical characteristics of the pictures rather than the semantic characteristics. It suggests that it is depth of processing that leads to stronger memories, rather than there being separate memory stores. Craik and Tulving also originally started with five tasks, but then narrowed it down to three to avoid a ceiling effect. Itwas found that low-rankingexemplars were classified more slowly but n-cognizedbetter than high-rankingexemplars. The concept of memory maintenance as a function of the quality rather than the quantity of processing would seem to be of profound significance for information processing theories of consumer behavior.
Tulving, E. Upload PDF. This paper describes and evaluates explanations offered by these theories to account for the effect of extralist cuing, facilitation of recall of list items by nonlist items. Download Printable PDF. Journal of neuroscience 17 1 , , Recent changes in prctheorclical orientation toward problems of human memory have brought with them a concern with retrieval processes, and a number of early versions of theories of retrieval have been constructed. Not too long ago Tulving, , I thought of the three systems as representing two different levels in a hierarchy: memory as a whole subdivided into two general Levels of Processing.
The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention
These are the sources and citations used to research Levels of Processing. Your Bibliography: Craik, F. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research.
Essay on The Experiment Research Study: Craik and Tulving Aim: To investigate depth processing by giving participants s number of tasks requiring different levels of processing and measuring recognition. Episodic memory: From mind to brain. M Lepage, R Habib, E.
The Levels of Processing model , created by Fergus I. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart in , describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis.
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Permalink Print. By "depth of processing", we mean, the way in which a person thinks about a piece of information, for example, a shallow level of processing of a word would be to skim over a sentence and to understand the sentence without dwelling on the individual word. In this way, we have processed the meaning of the word, but only in order to understand the sentence.
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