File Name: effects of copper in human and aquatic animals.zip
Heavy metals are well-known environmental pollutants due to their toxicity, persistence in the environment, and bioaccumulative nature. Their natural sources include weathering of metal-bearing rocks and volcanic eruptions, while anthropogenic sources include mining and various industrial and agricultural activities.
Copper is a reddish metal with a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. It reflects red and orange light and absorbs other frequencies in the visible spectrum, due to its band structure, so it as a nice reddish color. It is malleable, ductile, and an extremely good conductor of both heat and electricity.
NCBI Bookshelf. Copper in Drinking Water. This chapter focuses on the health effects associated with acute and chronic exposure to excess copper.
Health benefits and risks of copper
Copper toxicity is a type of metal poisoning caused by an excess of copper in the body. Copperiedus can occur from eating acidic foods cooked in uncoated copper cookware, an IUD, or from exposure to excess copper in drinking water and other environmental sources. Acute symptoms of copper poisoning by ingestion include vomiting, hematemesis vomiting of blood , hypotension low blood pressure , melena black "tarry" feces , coma, jaundice yellowish pigmentation of the skin , and gastrointestinal distress. Chronic long-term copper exposure can damage the liver and kidneys. Those same protection mechanisms can cause milder symptoms, which are often misdiagnosed as psychiatric disorders.
Decades of study indicate that copper oral exposures are typically not a human health concern. Ingesting high levels of soluble copper salts can cause acute gastrointestinal symptoms and, in uncommon cases, liver toxicity in susceptible individuals with repeated exposure. This focused toxicological review evaluated the current literature since the last comprehensive reviews — Our review identified limitations in the existing United States and international guidance for determining an oral reference dose RfD for essential metals like copper. Instead, an alternative method using categorical regression analysis to develop an optimal dose that considers deficiency, toxicity, and integrates information from human and animal studies was reviewed for interpreting an oral RfD for copper.
Copper is an essential trace mineral necessary for survival. It is found in all body tissues and plays a role in making red blood cells and maintaining nerve cells and the immune system. It also helps the body form collagen and absorb iron, and plays a role in energy production. Both too much and too little copper can affect how the brain works. It helps maintain healthy bones, blood vessels, nerves, and immune function, and it contributes to iron absorption.
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effects in wild fish and aquatic species are unclear and the subject of ongoing research. Cu is toxic at higher concentrations and mammals (including humans) evolved reduce this effect but dissolved organic carbon can (Sandahl et al. ).
Copper - Cu
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