Human Evolution Processes And Adaptations Pdf

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Published: 01.04.2021

Published by Cognella Academic Publishing

The scale of human cooperation is an evolutionary puzzle. All of the available evidence suggests that the societies of our Pliocene ancestors were like those of other social primates, and this means that human psychology has changed in ways that support larger, more cooperative societies that characterize modern humans. In this paper, we argue that cultural adaptation is a key factor in these changes. Over the last million years or so, people evolved the ability to learn from each other, creating the possibility of cumulative, cultural evolution.

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The Zoo educator will guide students through the Zoo to explore adaptations of animals to their environments. Students will work through examples of different evolutionary processes that have led to the diversity of life on Earth. Working with model skulls and stone tools, students will try to piece together the human evolution process. Our email newsletter keeps you up to date with what's happening at the Zoo. Wellington Zoo is the world's first carboNZero certified zoo.

Human evolution , the process by which human beings developed on Earth from now-extinct primates. Viewed zoologically, we humans are Homo sapiens , a culture-bearing upright-walking species that lives on the ground and very likely first evolved in Africa about , years ago. We are now the only living members of what many zoologists refer to as the human tribe, Hominini , but there is abundant fossil evidence to indicate that we were preceded for millions of years by other hominins, such as Ardipithecus , Australopithecus , and other species of Homo , and that our species also lived for a time contemporaneously with at least one other member of our genus , H. In addition, we and our predecessors have always shared Earth with other apelike primates, from the modern-day gorilla to the long-extinct Dryopithecus. That we and the extinct hominins are somehow related and that we and the apes , both living and extinct , are also somehow related is accepted by anthropologists and biologists everywhere.

The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The origin of our species has long been a compelling focus of human curiosity, and the record of past climate change and its impacts on hominin evolution provide an ideal context for considering potential intersections between future climate change and the responses of our species to such environmental changes. Of all the records of fossil organisms, the one offered by paleoanthropology is unique for its rich evidence of behavioral and ecological interactions derived from hominin Box 1. This fossil record contains a history of critical evolutionary events that have ultimately shaped and defined what it means to be human, including the origins of bipedalism; the emergence of our genus Homo ; the first use of stone tools; increases in brain size; and the emergence of Homo sapiens , more advanced tools, and culture. Some of these events appear to have coincided with major changes in African climate, raising the intriguing possibility that key junctures in human evolution and behavioral development may have been climatically mediated.

Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently. Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past , years.

The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program

However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. Four questions are addressed: 1 Is there a major divide between early australopithecine and later Homo evolution? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. The history of science is awash with books and papers in search of human origins, or the origins of the things that made us human—upright walking or language or culture.

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation , genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation. The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was conceived independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the midth century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species. This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: 1 traits vary among individuals with respect to their morphology, physiology and behaviour phenotypic variation , 2 different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction differential fitness and 3 traits can be passed from generation to generation heritability of fitness.

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This article explores the hypothesis that key human adaptations evolved in response to environmental instability. This idea was developed during research conducted by Dr.

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5 Response
  1. Ilian O.

    PDF | On Jan 1, , Christopher Brian Stringer published Human Evolution and Biological Adaptation in the Pleistocene | Find, read and cite all the research​.

  2. Necdamendoa

    Human evolution and ecology analyses argue that environment is a major factor influencing biological and sociocultural adaptation, but they rarely analyze environmental properties.

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